Mali has a great potential of natural resources such as water. One of the largest rivers of Africa, the Niger, flows accross the country. The amount of rainfall strongly varies per region. In some regions there's a timephased shortage of water. This is one of the main water management issues in Mali. Inspite of the potential of water resources, there is a timephased and regional shortage of water. In addition, agriculture is being more and more constrained by a lack of water and infrastructure to transport the available water. Many countries and stakeholders are involved in the water management of the Niger and other rivers crossing Mali. This brings another challenge to the water managment of the country. 

The Netherlands and Mali have the intention to develop a long-term relationship on water management. As a first step the countries work together on a strategic plan. The development of the plan was postponed during the turbulence in Mali in 2012 and 2013. In 2014 the collaboration between both countries has started up again and focuses on issues like food certainty and integrated water mangement.