Posted on 12 May 2014
Indonesia is a tropical country, receiving abundant annual rainfall. In many areas, however, rainfall is highly seasonal, and sometimes erratic. These climatic characteristics are the main reason for the country having to cope with both serious droughts and floods.
Several Indonesian governmental organizations and research institutes are involved in the operational water management. To support these organizations in coping with droughts and floods, four partner institutes joined together in the Joint Cooperation Program. This program focuses on capacity building and delivering tools and datasets that benefits Indonesia. Three of these tools concern operational water management: a Water Data Management System, a Flood Forecasting System and a Drought Information System.
The three systems are integrated in such a way that they add value to each other. A key role in this framework is Delft-FEWS, a public-domain system that was developed by Deltares as the basis for Early Warning and Operational Systems. Delft-FEWS is currently the basis for the national systems in more than 23 countries including the USA, Netherlands, Singapore and the United Kingdom, and is fast becoming the world standard.
Until recently there was no comprehensive drought monitoring and forecasting system in Indonesia. Since the start of the JCP, the partners have been working together to set up such a system which is now successfully in operation since late 2012. Up to date drought frequency and severity maps are currently available which help create an understanding of distribution of drought vulnerabilities. The availability of these maps directly benefit many aspects of water and land management in Indonesia, among them drought preparedness and climate proofing of agricultural and water supply systems.
On a more regional scale. floods represent a major hazard in Indonesia and regularly cause loss of life and property. Flood protection infrastructure and spatial planning can in principle largely mitigate flooding but there is always a residual risk of flooding. Non-structural measures like flood warning and management can help society to cope with the remaining risk.
Water Data Management System (WMDS)
The WDMS is the basis for set of operational systems. Its main function is collecting and processing data from international, national and regional sources.
Drought Early Warning System (DEWS)
The DEWS automatically generates drought maps on a daily to monthly basis and disseminates the data using the web. For expert users, an operator client is available for further analysis of the data that is used for generation the drought maps. Next to national drought monitoring, the DEWS also performs derived analyses, like fire risk monitoring in peatlands.
Flood Forecasting System
Because of the geographical conditions, flood forecasting in Indonesia takes place on a regional scale. The data being collected by the Water Data Management System is being used in the Flood Forecasting System as input for linked hydrologic-hydrodynamic models, which generate discharge and water level forecasts in the whole Jakarta basin. After the successful implementation in Jakarta, the Flood Forecasting System will be implemented in all other river basins in Indonesia, starting with Citarum and Solo river basins.